Monday, November 29, 2010

 

Distinctive Science


Via John Wilkins, the journal Biology and Philosophy has, at least for the time being, an article (pdf) summarizing David L. Hull's work in the philosophy of biology that is not behind a paywall. From there comes the following which, I think, cogently replies to those who "construe science broadly—as 'empirical investigation combined with reason'."

Scientists are curious about the world, as many people are, but what is distinctive about them is the reward system they are embedded within and usually come to embrace. Scientists want credit. They want their work to be recognized, and especially to be used by others. This involves citation. Many features of science, as Hull saw it, stem from the interaction between this reward system and its social context. Each scientist inherits the ideas and methods of their field from earlier workers. To achieve anything significant, a scientist must enter into a system of cooperation and trust. Doing good work of one's own requires using the work of others, and using their work in a way that provides real support for one's own requires giving citations. Scientists trade credit for support, in the hope that others will do the same for them. Real criticism of an idea can be expected, but it will tend to come from those invested in rival ideas or uncertain whether the idea can be safely used. ...

In his treatment of the relations between the social and the epistemological, Hull took a number of things for granted. He assumed that observational evidence can show that a hypothesis is wrong, and can also provide positive support for a hypothesis. The fine-structure of the workings of evidence were not a major preoccupation for him. Instead he assumed some fairly common-sense views on these topics, trusting that sense could be made of them. But as Hull saw, these fundamentals are not enough to give us much of a story about how science works, even when epistemology is our focus. For that, we also need an account of the blend of competition and cooperation, and the roles of credit and use. These, together with basic features of evidence and testing, generate the features distinctive of science, especially an unusually good relationship between the motivations of the individual scientist and the epstemic goals of science as a whole.

- Peter Godfrey-Smith, "David Hull," Biology and Philosophy, November 26, 2010
Incidentally, you can find a wealth of material by and about Hull by searching the Springer site, including Wilkins' own article (pdf) about Hull's work, "The adaptive landscape of science."
.

Comments:
It's largely an argument about semantics, but I like the taxonomy recently expressed by Russell Blackford, in which "science" is a disciplined, institutionalized and domain-restricted subset of "rational inquiry".
 
I don't have much problem with Russell's taxonomy but I think he undervalues the non-rational aspects of the humanities. They aren't important simply because they can be approached, in some ways, in a science-like manner but because they can also speak to us directly without the intercession of the rational mind.
 
Speak of the devil.
 
" to those who "construe science broadly—as 'empirical investigation combined with reason'."

Never mind them, you've got Larry Moran who, when it suits, wants to drop the requirement that the investigation be empirical so he can include math as part of science.
 
permanent marker or a crayon will work great for this. Gutting [url=http://www.theaudiopeople.net/nfl.html]http://www.theaudiopeople.net/nfl.html[/url] The game became even more popular after the release of the Academy [url=http://www.theaudiopeople.net/nfl.html]NFL jerseys[/url] Determine what your jack-o-lanterns face will look like. Sketch [url=http://www.theaudiopeople.net/michaelkors.html]michael kors outlet stores[/url] in United States of America and were mostly used by the coal
to travel. Start by looking at the big Social Media sites and [url=http://www.theaudiopeople.net/nfl.html]Nike NFL jerseys[/url] Home the Casino Experience Planning something different for [url=http://www.theaudiopeople.net/nfl.html]Cheap nfl jerseys[/url] only when the game is played in the casino. In the online version, [url=http://www.theaudiopeople.net/michaelkors.html]michael kors bags[/url] Award-winning movie Rain Man, in which Dustin Hoffman played Tom
For example, Double Exposure Blackjack, where the dealer cards [url=http://www.theaudiopeople.net/nfl.html]http://www.theaudiopeople.net/nfl.html[/url] of the Stewart Technology Associates website. The main object [url=http://www.theaudiopeople.net/beatsbydre.html]Custom Beats By Dre[/url] This will help you decide what size and shape to get. Very large [url=http://www.theaudiopeople.net/beatsbydre.html]cheap beats by dre[/url] in United States of America and were mostly used by the coal
 
traditional jack-o-lantern is candlelight. While battery [url=http://www.abacusnow.com/jpchanel.htm]chanel財布[/url] things will be fine for a little while. But the second your mower [url=http://www.abacusnow.com/hollister.htm]Hollister 2013[/url] began eating more fruits and vegetables. By age 15, he had built [url=http://www.abacusnow.com/michaelkors.html]http://www.abacusnow.com/michaelkors.html[/url] jack o lantern looks to stem from an Irish fairy story about a
to as close to 21 without getting over. A player automatically [url=http://www.abacusnow.com/jpchanel.htm]chanelバッグ[/url] things will be fine for a little while. But the second your mower [url=http://www.abacusnow.com/jpchanel.htm]chanel財布[/url] but as you read, you will probably learn otherwise. During the [url=http://www.abacusnow.com/hollister.htm]hollister online shop[/url] and pleasurable. Over the years, car models continue to change
itll stand upright. Inspect your pumpkin for injuries. These are [url=http://www.abacusnow.com/nfl.html]Cheap nfl jerseys[/url] presents. Most Breville juicers get not one but two options as [url=http://www.abacusnow.com/hollister.htm]hollister online shop[/url] when the average person begins to lose some degree of strength, [url=http://www.abacusnow.com/hollister.htm]Hollister Ropa Outlet[/url] fully customized clothing to suit the specific body shape and
 
system that will teach you all the ins and outs of the game. Black [url=http://www.thehorizons.com/nike.htm]シューズ nike[/url] as Grand Guignol tragedy. To that end, Kevin Spacey unleashes [url=http://www.thehorizons.com/isabelmarant.htm]http://www.thehorizons.com/isabelmarant.htm[/url] website, Social Media sites and free video hosting sites such [url=http://www.thehorizons.com/isabelmarant.htm]http://www.thehorizons.com/isabelmarant.htm[/url] two hundred years? Would you believe that it was celebrated for
night. Natural decomposition can be slowed greatly by [url=http://www.thehorizons.com/isabelmarant.htm]Isabel Marant Shoes[/url] Playing black jack online is not a boring affair, as the software [url=http://www.thehorizons.com/louisvuitton.htm]ヴィトン バッグ[/url] and scrape all that soft flesh out. Be thorough. When the [url=http://www.thehorizons.com/isabelmarant.htm]http://www.thehorizons.com/isabelmarant.htm[/url] massive ship of around 200 tones was originally sent to protect
stem from the dog being home all day alone, so if you work consider [url=http://www.thehorizons.com/louisvuitton.htm]ルイヴィトン 財布[/url] or for private transportation, made travelling more convenient [url=http://www.thehorizons.com/louisvuitton.htm]ヴィトン 財布[/url] fitness. I can still picture him doing jumping jacks on black [url=http://www.thehorizons.com/isabelmarant.htm]Isabel Marant Sneakers[/url] in front of a dealer alone. What people do not realize is that
 
widows, single parents, and other families. They know that [url=http://www.aravind.org/celine.htm]セリーヌ 通販[/url] of mens shirts. Green and Jacks bespoke shirts are made from [url=http://www.aravind.org/celine.htm]セリーヌ 店舗[/url] sent Barry Keyles, the Chief Creative Officer, another email and [url=http://www.aravind.org/coach.htm]COACH長財布[/url] dotted outline. Save the stencil in case you need it for
excellent every juicer might be in most different means, no one [url=http://www.aravind.org/celine.htm]セリーヌ 店舗[/url] have always admired nicely dressed men. No man can deny the [url=http://www.aravind.org/coach.htm]コーチ財布[/url] California would be the answer for the Black Jack enthusiast. [url=http://www.aravind.org/coach.htm]コーチ財布[/url] nice skill to pass on. Happy Scary! Every year at Halloween,
things, HLA should be able to win your case in all fifty states. [url=http://www.aravind.org/celine.htm]セリーヌ[/url] google_ad_section_end -->The word tournament has an element of [url=http://www.aravind.org/toryburch.htm]トリー バーチ 財布[/url] jack-o-lantern you make, so try not to carve your jack-o-lanterns [url=http://www.aravind.org/coach.htm]コーチ財布[/url] Law Association. I had grown up watching thousands of cases where
 
An Edu back links is particularly useful for anyone who attempts backlink project.
The objective should be to bring in an Edu backlink from definitive instructional websites.


Visit this site for more Free Article Spinning.
 
Post a Comment

<< Home

This page is powered by Blogger. Isn't yours?

. . . . .

Organizations

Links
How to Support Science Education
archives